If I had to use a synonym or phrase for "Impeach" it would be "successfully charged for committing a crime".  So the fact that someone is charged does not make them guilty definitely applies here.  To the extent that the President is, no pun intended, unmoved by the announcement...which I agree that he should n't be if he indeed has not committed a crime.  The Senate will decide whether he has or has not when President Trump goes to trial...which is what the impeachment provides for ...a Trial.

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The above is at least what I've gathered, or interpreted, based upon reading several news articles and googling and researching definitions of impeachment...such as this definition per a news source:

The process of impeachment has to be started by the House of Representatives, which is one half of the US Congress, and only needs a simple majority to pass.

If this happens, the trial will then be held in the Senate - the second half of Congress.

This is a bit like a courtroom, where senators will act as a jury to decide whether or not a president is guilty.

Here two-thirds of senators must vote in favor of impeaching the president in order to remove him or her from the job.

As I said earlier, and understandably so at this preliminary stage in the entire impeachment, President Trump seems to have no worries whatsoever.  Trump has even more reason to feel confident that he'll be acquited because Former President Clinton was impeached but acquited (with respect to his affair with Monica Lewinski), as was Andrew Johnson acquitted with respect to his charges.   No President has been impeached and removed...President Trump would be the first if the Senate concludes that he should be removed.

Trump continues to campaign and reacts to impeachment:

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